Compiled by the AAPA Ethics Committee* 

(*last updated March 2015)

 

Key Resources for Biological Anthropology

  • Turner, TR  (2014) Large scale collections of biological materials and ethical first principles. Curator 57(2): 259-267
  • MacClancy, J and Fuentes, A, editors (2013) Ethics in the Field: Contemporary Challenges. New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Turner, TR (2012) Ethical issues in human population biology. Current Anthropology 53(S5): S222-232.
  • Riley, EP and MacKinnon, KC, editors (2010) Special section on Ethical Issues in Field Primatology. American Journal of Primatology 72(9): 749-793.
  • Turner, TR, editor (2004) Biological Anthropology and Ethics: From Repatriation to Genetic Identity. Albany: SUNY Press.

Foundational, Historical Documents

·      Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

o  Possible hyperlinks:

§ http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

§ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Declaration_of_Human_Rights

 

·      Nuremberg Code, 1949

http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html

o  Possible hyperlinks:

§ http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html

§ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuremberg_Code

 

·      Declaration of Helsinki, 1964, and subsequently amended six times (most recently 2008) 

o  Possible hyperlinks:

§ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Helsinki

§ http://www.wma.net/en/60about/70history/01declarationHelsinki/

§ http://www.wma.net/en/20activities/10ethics/10helsinki/

 

·      Belmont Report, 1979

o  Possible hyperlinks:

§ http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html

§ http://archive.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.htm

§ http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/belmontArchive.html

§ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belmont_Report

 

·      U.S. Animal Welfare Act, 1966 plus all amendments through 2008)

o   Hyperlink:

§ http://awic.nal.usda.gov/government-and-professional-resources/federal-laws/animal-welfare-act

 

·      U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Act, 1973

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.epw.senate.gov/esa73.pdf

 

Selected International Documents

·      For the 10 Core International Human Rights documents, see http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CoreInstruments.aspx

 

·      Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, 2005

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31058&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

 

·      International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, 2003

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=17720&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

 

·      Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, 1997

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13177&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

  

Selection of Other Anthropological (or related fields) Organizations’ Codes of Ethics and Guiding Statements

·      American Anthropological Association (AAA) Ethics Code, revised 2012

o  Hyperlinks:

§ http://www.aaanet.org/coe/Code_of_Ethics.pdf

§ NEWhttp://ethics.aaanet.org/ethics-statement-0-preamble/

 

·      Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) Code of Ethics, revised 1997

o  Hyperlinks:

§ http://www.archaeological.org/pdfs/AIA_Code_of_EthicsA5S.pdf

§ http://www.archaeological.org/about/policies

 

·      American Alliance of Museums, Code of Ethics for Museums, revised 2000

o   Hyperlink:

§ http://www.aam-us.org/resources/ethics-standards-and-best-practices/code-of-ethics-for-museums

 

·       American Psychological Association, Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals, updated February 2014

o  Hyperlink: 

§ http://www.apa.org/science/leadership/care/guidelines.aspx

 

·       Animal Behavior Society1991. ‘Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research’, Animal Behavior 41: 183–86.

 

·      American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and International Primatological Society (IPS) Best Practices in Field Primatology, co-approved Fall 2014

o  Hyperlink:

§ https://www.asp.org/resources/docs/Code%20of_Best_Practices%20Oct%202014.pdf

 

·      American Society of Primatologists (ASP) Principles for the Ethical Treatment of Non-Human Primates, approved 2001

o  Hyperlink:

§ https://www.asp.org/society/resolutions/EthicalTreatmentOfNonHumanPrimates.cfm

 

·      British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology, Code of Ethics and Code of Practice 

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.babao.org.uk/index/ethics-and-standards

 

·      International Council of Museums, Code of Ethics, revised 2004

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://icom.museum/the-vision/code-of-ethics/

 

·      International Primatological Society (IPS) Guidelines for the Use of Nonhuman Primates in Research 

o  Hyperlink

§ http://www.internationalprimatologicalsociety.org/docs/IPS%20ethical%20guidelines%20FINAL.pdf

 

·      International Primatological Society (IPS) Guidelines for the Acquisition, Care, and Breeding of Nonhuman Primates, revised 2007

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.internationalprimatologicalsociety.org/docs/IPS_International_Guidelines_for_the_Acquisition_Care_and_Breeding_of_Nonhuman_Primates_Second_Edition_2007.pdf

 

 

·       National Academy of Sciences.1995. On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

 

·       Society of American Archaeology Ethics Code, adopted 1996

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.saa.org/AbouttheSociety/PrinciplesofArchaeologicalEthics/tabid/203/Default.aspx

 

·      World Archaeological Congress Code of Ethics, adopted 1990

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.worldarchaeologicalcongress.org/site/about_ethi.php

 

Other Useful Resources

·      Ethics Resources from the AAA 

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.aaanet.org/cmtes/ethics/Ethics-Resources.cfm

 

·      American Association of University Professors, Resources on Professional Ethics

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.aaup.org/issues/ethics/resources-professional-ethics

 

·      Animal Ethics Infolink on collecting voucher specimens

o  Hyperlink:

§ http://www.animalethics.org.au/policies-and-guidelines/wildlife-research/voucher-specimens

 

·      Bioethics resources from the Rock Ethics Institute at Penn State University

o  Hyperlink:

http://rockethics.psu.edu/bioethics/resources/resources/web-sites

 

·       President's Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

o  The PCSBI home page is at http://bioethics.gov/
o  The educational tools are at http://bioethics.gov/education

  

Helpful Articles/Books to Get Started

·      Clancy, K.B.H., Nelson, R.G., Rutherford, J.R., Hinde, K., “Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): Trainees report harassment and assault”, PLOS One 9(7): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102172

 

·      Nancy Tuana, "Conceptualizing moral literacy", Journal of Educational Administration, 2007; 45(4): 364-378. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/09578230710762409

o  Tuana provides the fundamental elements of moral literacy (ethics sensitivity, ethical reasoning skills, and moral imagination) and breaks down essential components of each. 

 

·      Scheinke et al., The Role of the NSF Broader Impacts Criterion in Enhancing Research Ethics Pedagogy, Social Epistemology2008; 23(3): 317-336. DOI 10.1080/02691720903364282. Available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02691720903364282

o  Scheinke and colleagues propose a three-prong approach to the ethical dimensions in scientific research (EDSR) model: procedural ethics, intrinsic ethics, and extrinsic ethics. 

 

·      Arthur Kleinman, Anthropology of Bioethics. In Writing at the Margin: Discourse between Anthropology and Medicine. 1997, California University Press. DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520209657.001.0001

o  Kleinman identifies anthropological contributions and influences on bioethics.  

o  Hyperlink to the book’s publisher page: http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520209657

 

·      Daniel Wickler and Dan W. Brock, Population-Level Bioethics: Mapping a New Agenda. In Ronald Michael Green, Aine Donovan & Steven A. Jauss (eds.), Global Bioethics: Issues of Conscience for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press (2008)

o  Wickler and Brock provide a “Bird’s-Eye Perspective”

o  Hyperlink to the book’s publisher page: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199546596.do

 

·      Paul Farmer and Nicole Gastineau Campos, Rethinking Medical Ethics: A View From Below.  Dev World Bioeth. 2004 May;4(1):17-41.

o  Farmer and Campos provide an important perspective on issues related to working in “resource-poor settings” and with marginalized people. 

o  Hyperlink to PubMed abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15086372

 

·      Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7thEd., Oxford UP. ISBN 0195335708

o  Hyperlink to the book’s publisher page: http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/he/subject/Philosophy/Ethics/BioethicsBiomedicalEthics/?view=usa&ci=9780199924585

 

·      Embedding Ethics, Edited by Lynn Meskell and Peter Pels. Berg Publishers. 2005.

o  Hyperlink to book’s publisher page: http://www.bergpublishers.com/?tabid=2216

 

·      Genetics: Ethics, Law and Policy, 2nd Edition by Lori B. Andrews, Maxwell J Mehlman, and Mark A Rothstein (American Casebook Series by Thomas West)  ISBN 0-314-16293-3.

 

·      Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy and Practice, edited by Barbara T. Hoffman, ISBN-10 0-521-85764-3, ISBN-13 978-0-521-85764-2

 

·      Cultural Heritage Ethics. Constantine Sandis. Open Book Publishers, 2014. 

 

o  Hyperlink:        http://www.amazon.com/Cultural-Heritage-Ethics-Between-Practice/dp/1783740671/ref=sr_1_45?ie=UTF8&qid=1425734343&sr=8-45&keywords=ethics+theories

 

 

·      Canada Panel on Research Ethics:  "TCPS 2 (2014) - Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans”. 

o  Hyperlink:  http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/Default/

 

Selected Statutes

  • Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA)
    • 43 U.S.C. § 2101 et. seq.
  • Antiquities Act of 1906
    • 16 U.S.C. § 431 et. seq.
  • National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA)
    • 16 U.S.C. § 470 et. seq.
  • Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA)
    • 16 U.S.C. § 470aa et. seq.
  • Native Americans Grave Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA) 
    • 25 U.S.C. § 3001 et. seq.
  • National Stolen Property Act  (NSPA)
    • 18 U.S.C. § 2314 et. seq.
  • Animal Welfare Act (AWA)
    • 7 U.S.C. § 2131 et seq.
  • Endangered Species Act (ESA)
    • 16 U.S.C. §1531 et seq.


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