On the Sondor Bioarchaeology Project, participants will help investigate the enigmatic fate of a late prehistoric society known as the Chanka. Situated in a region of the southern Peruvian Andes called Apurimac, the Chanka began to coalesce in earnest around 1000 CE, establishing dozens of fortresses on precipitous hilltops and ridges. Until recently, much of what we knew about the Chanka was gleaned from written accounts authored by Spanish missionaries, conquistadors, and aristocrats. Recalling the testimonies of indigenous informants, Colonial authors vividly related the trials and tribulations of Chanka chiefs and tribesmen who were singularly motivated by an incurable desire to invade foreign lands and enslave the conquered masses. Yet these lofty aspirations were never realized. Around 1400 CE, the Chanka were decisively vanquished in a grisly battle with their bitter rivals, the illustrious Inca. However, for scholars of Andean history, a nagging question still remains: What became of Chanka after their spectacular defeat? This project, situated at Sondor, the premier Chanka-Inca settlement in Apurimac, addresses that perplexing issue by examining the biological and social consequences of “growing up Chanka” in the face of Inca imperial incursion. The upcoming 2017 field season will immerse participants in a full spectrum of bioarchaeological methods and anthropologically informed research–an approach which fosters the development of skills necessary to interpret multiple data sets and test working hypotheses. Project members will engage in field recovery operations, laboratory practicums, and museum conservation work to learn how archaeological data are collected, processed, and assessed. At the conclusion of the field program, participants will be able to effectively excavate a mortuary unit as well as conduct comprehensive analyses of skeletonized and mummified human remains.
Sexual Harassment Policy
The IFR is committed to promoting a learning and working environment in which all people are treated with dignity and respect. Harassing, coercive, or disruptive acts can be forms of misconduct that undermine the effectiveness of IFR programs and harm individuals toward whom such conduct is directed. The IFR expects that all relationships among persons involved in a field school will be professional. Therefore, the IFR expects field school directors, their affiliated faculty, staff, and volunteers, as well as field school students and visitors to refrain from and discourage harassment of any type.
As with other forms of discrimination and harassment, sexual harassment is not tolerated in IFR field schools and programs.
Definition of Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects a person’s employment or education; unreasonably interferes with a person’s work or educational performance; or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive working or learning environment.
Harassment that is not sexual in nature but is based on gender, sex-stereotyping, or sexual orientation is prohibited under the IFR’s non-discrimination policy and may contribute to the creation of a hostile work or academic environment. Therefore, in determining whether a hostile environment due to sexual harassment exists, the IFR may take into account acts of discrimination based on gender, sex-stereotyping, or sexual orientation.
Sexual and Gender Harassment Outside the USA
A definition of sexual harassment abroad must take into account the norms of the culture within which the field school is taking place. The IFR recognizes, and students are hereby forewarned, that IFR field schools operate in diverse locales, where cultural norms, environmental conditions, and logistical constraints may create situations that are unfamiliar and uncomfortable. Participants must be mindful of the cultural norms of the host society, which may allow, or even require, conduct that is considered objectionable in the USA. All participants are encouraged to become culturally aware and educated about the norms of the culture in which they are working.
Being culturally sensitive does not include relaxing personal boundaries. Every participant must trust his or her judgment and intuition. If a situation makes a participant uncomfortable, the situation must be addressed and must not be ignored. Additionally, participants must conform to the spirit, as well as the letter of all laws, and regulations of the jurisdiction in which the field school operates. Nonetheless, the IFR expects all participants personally to strive toward creating an inclusive and safe learning and working environment.
Sexual Harassment Reporting
In the interest of preventing sexual harassment, the IFR will respond to reports of any such conduct. In determining whether the reported conduct constitutes sexual harassment, consideration shall be given to the record of the conduct as a whole and to the totality of the circumstances, including the context in which the conduct occurred.
The IFR encourages reporting of all perceived incidents of harassment. It is the policy of the IFR to investigate such reports. The IFR prohibits retaliation against any individual who reports harassment in good faith, who assists someone with a report of harassment, or participates in an investigation of such reports. A report of retaliation shall be treated as a report of sexual harassment and will be subject to the same procedures.
Reporting an Incident of Harassment
The IFR encourages participants to report all perceived incidents of harassment regardless of the offender's identity or position. Participants who believe that they have been the victim of such conduct are encouraged—if practicable—to first advise the offender that his or her behavior is unwelcome and request that it be discontinued. Often this action alone will resolve the problem. If a participant is uncomfortable confronting the offender, or if the conduct or similar conduct continues, the participant should report his or her concerns to the field director or another faculty member. If the participant is uncomfortable addressing the conduct with the offender or reporting the conduct to the field director or faculty, or if a previous report has not resulted in a satisfactory resolution, participants should make a report directly to IFR administration:
IFR hotline (24/7): +1 (424) 226-6983
IFR Email: [email protected]
Intentional False Reports
Because sexual harassment frequently involves interactions between persons that are not witnessed by others, reports of sexual harassment cannot always be substantiated by additional evidence. Lack of corroborating evidence or “proof” should not discourage individuals from reporting sexual harassment under this policy. However, individuals who make reports that are later found to have been intentionally false or made maliciously without regard for truth may be subject to disciplinary action and are in no way indemnified from third party legal action.
Options for Resolution
IFR will respond to all reports of harassment, including those brought anonymously or by third parties not directly involved in the harassment.
The IFR will take any action that it deems appropriate in response to a report. Many cases can be resolved at an early stage. Where early resolution is inappropriate (such as when the facts are in dispute in a report of serious misconduct), or in cases where early resolution is unsuccessful, the IFR may conduct an investigation. At the conclusion of such investigation, the IFR may take any action that it deems necessary or prudent, in its sole discretion, including requiring a participant to leave a field school and notification of authorities.